Not For Profit - For Global Justice - Since 2001

"Liberty cannot be preserved without a general knowledge among the people" - John Adams - Second President - 1797 - 1801

 

Number Of Iraqis Slaughtered In US War And Occupation Of Iraq "1,455,590"

 

Number of U.S. Military Personnel Sacrificed (Officially acknowledged) In U.S. War And Occupation Of Iraq 4,801

Number Of International Occupation Force Troops Slaughtered In Afghanistan : 3,487

Total Cost of Wars Since 2001

$4,596,531,075,155
 

Click for Spanish, German, Dutch, Danish, French, translation- Note- Translation may take a moment to load.

 

Hillary Clinton on Gaddafi: We came, we saw, he died

 

Madeline Albright: Is The Price Worth It?

 

===

===

WHO OR WHAT IS INFORMATION CLEARING HOUSE?

WHAT IS THE PURPOSE AND INTENT OF THIS WEBSITE

SUPPORT INDEPENDENT MEDIA

Privacy Statement

 

Search Information Clearing House

Daily Newsletter Archives

Email Newsletter icon, E-mail Newsletter icon, Email List icon, E-mail List icon

 Sign up for our Daily Email Newsletter

For Email Marketing you can trust

 

 

 

  Support Information Clearing House in making in-depth news and information possible.

Your support has kept ICH free on the Web since 2002.

   

Video And Audio

 

Obey: The Routine Of Obedience
 

"This film was absolutely WONDERFUL! It is inspiring and maddening"

Authority & Expectations
 

Smart and provocative young veteran, Wray Harris, unlocks the sufferings served by the Iraq war.
 

"I Am An American Indian Patriot"

"We live in a prisoner of war camp, that's why they call it a reservation"
 

A Pantomime World

By Adam Curtis

A fake bubble of certainty that has imprisoned us in the west - and is now preventing us from understanding what is really going on in the world outside.

The Power of Nightmares

By Adam Curtis

In the past our politicians offered us dreams of a better world. Now they promise to protect us from nightmares.

“How we can solve the Palestinian-Israeli problem”,
 
  “I simply got tired of western mainstream media presenting the Palestinian-Israeli issue as being complex."

Miko Peled Debunks Jewish Myths

"If Anybody here, came hoping to hear a balanced presentation, then they are going to be sorely disappointed.

"Political Fraud"

Indoctrination By Propaganda Works

Lifting the Veil:
Obama and the Failure of Capitalist Democracy


This film explores the historical role of the Democratic Party as the “graveyard of social movements”.

Surviving Progress

The film connects financial collapse, growing inequality and global oligarchy with the sustainability of mankind itself.

Let Your Life Be a Friction to Stop the Machine

A brief and crucial history of the United States

The Most Honest Three and a Half Minutes of Television. Ever......?

Scene of the new HBO series The Newsroom.

U.S. Helicopter Blasts Afghan Man to Pieces...
As The Pilot Sings 'Bye, Bye Miss American Pie'


It is the horrific moment an Afghan man is blown apart by a US missile.

The Power Principle

Simply brilliant. - This is probably the best film ever made about American foreign policy.

Managing Public Perception - Psywar

The real battlefield is your mind.

The Century of the Self

How politicians and business learned to create and manipulate mass-consumer society.

Why We Fight

What are the forces that shape and propel American militarism?

Norman Finkelstein: American Radical

Probing, definitive documentary about Jewish-American political scientist Norman Finkelstein

Stop the Machine!!!!!:
 
A brief and crucial history of the United States.

The Secret Government: The Constitution in Crisis

Bill Moyer's 1987 scathing critique of the criminal subterfuge carried out by the Executive Branch of the United States Government

Lives In The Balance : Jackson Browne

"You might ask what it takes to remember
When you know that you've seen it before
Where a government lies to a people
And a country is drifting to war "

American Drug War - The Last White Hope

How money, power and greed have corrupted not just drug pushers and dope fiends, but an entire government.

 
How American News Media Works In Favor Of Israel
 
The Fourth World War

Documentary of radical resistance to global capitalism

 
The Israel Lobby

Does the United States in fact keep Israel on its feet? And how long will it continue to do so?

 
John Pilger: 'The War on Democracy'

The story of great power behind its venerable myths. It allows us to understand the true nature of the so-called war on terror".

 
Dick Cheney '94: Invading Baghdad Would Create Quagmire

Dick Cheney reveals the reasons why invading Baghdad and toppling Saddam Hussein wouldn't be a great idea.

 
Poison DUst

Poison DUst tells the story of young soldiers who thought they came home safely from the war, but didn't.

 
John Pilger: Truth Game

The worldwide propaganda surrounding the nuclear arms race is scrutinised.

 
The Road To Guantanamo

Three young British Muslims tell the story of how they came to be in US custody at Guantánamo for over two years, and discuss the Kafkaesque horrors that awaited them there

 

"I Witnessed The Degradation And Murder Of Detainees":

A prisoner of the "war on terror" disturbing allegations of mistreatment and murder.

 
Global Dimming

It reveals that we may have grossly underestimated the speed at which our climate is changing. At its heart is a deadly new phenomenon.

 
 An Inconvenient Truth

Al Gore's Documentary on the dangers of climate change and global warming

 

America Freedom to Fascism

Startling facts about our laws, raising critical issues that Americans must consider if they are to be a free people.


 

Despotism & Democracy : Video

Explains how societies and nations can be measured by the degree that power is concentrated and respect for the individual is restricted.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

====== 

I Don't Remember Voting For U.S. Bombs To Murder Little Kids In Yemen, Do You?
By Will Bunch
This blood is on America’s hands, as long as we keep sending the bombs that kill so many Yemenis.    Continue

======

All Hands on Deck: The Caspian Sails Towards Eurasia Integration
By Pepe Escobar
President Putin, described the deal as having “epoch-making significance.”    Continue

======

Russian Collusion: It Was Hillary Clinton All Along
Updated - Editorial
Evidence that's already out there has been largely ignored by the mainstream media.    Continue

======

Why Confronting Israel Is Important - The Jewish State is no Friend
By Philip Giraldi
Israel – not Russia – is the one foreign country that can interfere with impunity with the political processes in the United States yet it is immune from criticism.    Continue

======

“Israel Has Taken Out a Contract on Jeremy Corbyn”
By George Galloway
The Jewish establishment in Britain and Israeli propaganda have taken out a contract on him (Corbyn), to foil his election…”    Continue

======

Is Iran on the Brink of an Economic and Political Crisis?
Watch
HARDtalk's Stephen Sackur speaks to Iranian political analyst and erstwhile nuclear talks adviser Mohamed Marandi.    Continue

======

White House Revokes Security Clearance of ex-CIA Chief
By Ben Jacobs
A list of others for whom the White House is considering revoking security clearances.    Continue

======

Censoring Alex Jones
By Dmitry Orlov
First they came for Alex Jones, and then they may very well come for me, and so the time to start paying attention and pushing back is now.    Continue

======

“Duhhh, Stop Defending Alex Jones! This Will Never Hurt The Left, Derp Duh!”
By Caitlin Johnstone
This isn’t a game. We have no time to play around cheering for the silencing of political opponents while the noose gets tighter and tighter.    Continue

======

Fight The Net
By Rand Clifford
The Internet is rife with "uncontrolled information", also known as free speech, therefore directly opposing the Pentagon’s goals.    Continue

======

Human Extinction by 2026? A Last Ditch Strategy to Fight for Human Survival
By Robert J. Burrowes
It is going to be a tough fight for human survival, particularly this late in the ‘game’.    Continue

======

At least 87 killed in Afghan attack: Taliban insurgents overran an Afghan army base and a police checkpoint in northern Afghanistan on Wednesday, killing at least 39

Suicide bomber targets Shiite students in Afghanistan, killing 48

Taliban no longer guaranteeing safe passage for Red Cross workers

22 militants of Islamic State killed in Diyala military operation: Commander

Two Iraqi policemen killed as bomb explosion targets police patrol in Kirkuk

Yemen: U.S. supported Saudi-UAE kills 13 civilians and injured 24 others.

Yemen bus strike killed 40 children, says Red Cross

Syrian Army destroys terrorists’ sites in Idleb southern countryside

Syria: Heartbreaking Video Testimony of ISIS Attack Survivor

Zakharova: UN supports disinformation campaign regarding so-called White Helmets

Lira rallies after Turkey raises tariffs on US imports

Qatar's Emir pledges $15 billion direct investment in Turkey: Erdogan's office

U.S. official warns of more actions against Turkey if pastor not freed

Iran Supreme Leader admits mistake over nuclear talks

Heart-wrenching firsthand account of Israeli water criminality

Palestinian mail blocked by Israel arrives eight years late

In August 15 speech, Moon says inter-Korean cooperation will bring 'true liberation' | NK News - North Korea News

US raises questions over 'abnormal' Russian satellite in row over space arms race : Russia, with the support of China, has drafted what is known as the “Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space

Russia open to talks with US on strategic weapons

Trump adviser Bolton to meet Russians next week in Geneva

Watch: This video has sent a shiver across Ukraine: On patrol with the far-right National Militia - BBC Newsnight

The Corbyn wreath ‘scandal’ is just an exercise in hypocrisy

Fascist tactics: How Jeremy Corbyn's detractors are plotting to remove him

NSA Cracked Open Encrypted Networks of Russian Airlines, Al Jazeera, and Other “High Potential” Targets

‘Father of the Web’ working on privacy-focused project called Solid: The intention is simple: decentralize the Web again so that it is controlled by users rather than corporations.

FCC shuts down Alex Jones' flagship radio station

Mineral created in lab that can remove CO2 pollution from atmosphere

Brazil's jailed Lula registered as presidential candidate: Brazil’s Workers Party registered imprisoned former President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva

Six Out of 10 Brazilian Children Struggle with Poverty: Unicef

Paraguay: Mario Abdo Benitez Sworn-in as President, Seeks Agreements with Opposition

Venezuela's Maduro announces curbs to cheap gas: Venezuelan president says move is necessary to fight smugglers

Mexico violence: Newly elected Congresswoman kidnapped

Mexico: AMLO To Invest In State Oil Refineries and Wells: Incoming president Lopez Obrador is dedicated to bringing oil production back under state control.

Chile police raid Catholic church HQ in sex abuse investigation

“The Saudi temper tantrum could land one devastating blow — to Canadian health care: Neil Macdonald

CEO of an American boat manufacturer perfectly laid out how Trump's tariffs are crushing US businesses

New Estimates Show U.S. Overdose Deaths Surpassed 72,000 in 2017.

Report reveals 300 Pennsylvania Catholic priests sexually abused over 1,000 children

Scientists develop forensic technique to identify paedophiles based on their hands: Scientists believe they can identify paedophiles based on characteristics of their hands, and potentially track their movements around the world.

Assaulting Cops Is Now Considered A Hate Crime In Connecticut: A 20-year-old man in Connecticut has been charged with a hate crime for throwing a brick at a police squad car,

Democratic National Committee Backtracks On Its Ban Of Fossil Fuel Donations

New Poll Sends Republicans Reeling As Voters Don’t Like Trump by A Nearly 2-1 Margin

Democrats rush to back Brennan - who spied on them

Manafort trial: Closing arguments as defence rests case

Omarosa claims Trump knew about "hacked" emails prior to WikiLeaks release

August 14, 2018

America’s Lengthening Enemies List
By Patrick J. Buchanan
A list of America’s adversaries contain the Taliban, the Houthis of Yemen, Bashar Assad of Syria, Erdogan’s Turkey, Iran, North Korea, Russia and China – a pretty full plate.    Continue

======

Donald Trump, Gunrunner for Hire
By William D. Hartung
Fueling death and destruction, however, turns out not to be a particularly effective job creator.    Continue

======

Caspian Deal an Antidote to Washington’s Bullyboy Tactics
By Finian Cunningham
The Caspian deal is a win-win for the five nations based on give-and-take and respect for each other’s sovereign rights..    Continue

======

Russia Says Dollar's Days Numbered as Global Trade Currency
By Reuters
Russia has been discussing using national currencies to settle bilateral trade deals with Turkey, China and Iran, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said.    Continue

======

Totally IRussianal
By Paul Edwards
“Better Dead Than Red”, stoking the fires of the gullible for a face-off with Russia.    Continue

======

How the U.S. Prevented North and South Korea From Reaching Real Peace
By Michael Pembroke
China, North Korea and South Korea all seek a peace treaty, but 11 U.S. presidents since 1953 have been unwilling to agree.    Continue

======

Why It's Now Every American Jew's Duty to Oppose Israel's Government
By David Rothkopf
U.S. Jews question even attenuated support for the Jewish state, while framing Israel as an unreliable, undesirable ally for America.    Continue

======

Coming To Terms With My Jewish Upbringing
By Tsiporah Grignon
“The beautiful dream of Israel has become a nightmare”.    Continue

======

Patriotism Has Been Turned Against Patriots
By Paul Craig Roberts
U.S. Patriotism is now associated with the suppression of dissent.    Continue

======

What Really Happens to Nicaragua, Venezuela and Ecuador
By Peter Koenig
Washington’s goal is “regime change” with the help of a strong Fifth Column    Continue

======

Dare to Dream of a World Without Borders
By Gary Younge
How do we sustain, with national taxes, these things that we value if they are then free to the world?    Continue

======

Corruption on Steroids
Senator Richard Burr: a Longtime Fan of Torture

By Ray McGovern
The foxes have been guarding the chicken coop for many years now.    Continue

======

 

More than 130 people killed in NW Syria violence spike: UN

Russia deploys police to help UN patrol occupied Golan Heights

Nasrallah: Hope of Israel to overthrow the Syrian state has failed

Isil still has up to 30,000 members in Syria and Iraq, UN report finds

2 killed in bomb explosion at marketplace in Iraq's Baghdad

Fighting between pro-government factions in Yemen kills 18

America's silence makes it complicit in Saudi bombing of Yemeni children

Turkey lira: Ankara to boycott US electronic goods

Gaza forced to halt treatment for cancer patients as siege worsens: Chemotherapy drug shortages put the lives of more than 8,200 cancer patients at risk, Gaza health officials say.

PA lashes out at Egypt over Gaza talks: Trust between the Palestinian Authority (PA) and Egypt is "very slim" and they are fed up with Cairo's "intervention in Gaza".

Striking back at Netanyahu, Corbyn says Israel killed ‘dozens’ of Gaza kids

Jeremy Corbyn’s blistering response to Netanyahu is a masterful put-down

Argentina blames Gaza violence on Palestinians: Netanyahu visited Buenos Aires late last year, meeting with President Macri and calling him “a true friend of Israel.”

American Jewish Organizations Slam Israel Over Detention of Peter Beinart

Israel Is Not a Liberal Democracy: Israel does not share many of the most important values of Western liberal democracies, including the United States.

Ethiopia: Paramilitaries 'kill at least 40' in Oromia region

At least 23 killed in South Sudan

Six dead in Burkina 'terrorist' attack

UN: Libyan militia forces 1,900 people from camp in Tripoli:

Niger suppresses dissent as US leads influx of foreign armies

Taliban overruns Afghan base, killing 17 soldiers

Taliban overrunning Afghan security forces in multiple cities, leaving more than 200 dead in 3 days

Pakistani soldiers killed by Indian Army in Jammu and Kashmir's Kupwara

Korea talks: Moon to visit Pyongyang in September

Trump Signs $716 billion Defense Bill to Boost Military, Target China

Trump went soft on China at the last minute before signing the defense spending bill: Trump signed a $716 billion defense policy bill on Monday, including watered-down controls on China's ZTE Corp and Huawei Technologies Co Ltd [HWT.UL].

Car hits pedestrians outside UK parliament in suspected terrorism attack

Watch: Westminster car attack: Aerial footage of the crash - BBC News

Kremlin says groundless for U.S. to depict Russia as threat: The U.S. defense budget was many times greater than that of Russia's and therefore it is groundless for Washington to portray Russia as a threat to anyone

Moscow Regrets US Suspension of Cooperation Within Open Skies Treaty

Russia reduces dependence on US dollar in response to sanctions

Kremlin says backs use of national currencies for bilateral trade

Italy Again Denies Refugees Stranded At Sea

Bolivian President Condems US Defense Secretary Tour in South America: He also urged Latin America and the Caribbean to defend their interests and to decline the establishment of military bases that unbalance the region.

Venezuelan President Announces New System of Wages and Prices: Maduro announced that August 20 will become a new bank holiday in order to ease the transition to the new currency named “Sovereign Bolivar.”

Venezuela Top Prosecutor: 34 Involved In Failed Assassination On Maduro

Lula: 'Yes, I Am a Candidate For President': Former Brazilian president Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva announced that he will formally register as the Workers Party (PT) presidential candidate on Tuesday, one day before the August 15 deadline.

Nobel Peace Prize Pérez Esquivel to Defend Lula at STF Prison

Cristina Fernandez: 'Macri's Gov't Is a Catastrophe'

For Second Time This Year, Facebook Suspends Left-Leaning teleSUR English Without Explanation

In case you missed it: Facebook Says It Is Deleting Accounts at the Direction of the U.S. and Israeli Governments

Facebook Executive Warns News Outlets to Cooperate or End Up Dying 'Like in a Hospice' in Private Meeting

United States: New revelations about children separated from parents: 105 of the about 3000 children separated from their parents are under the age of five. Some were still breast feeding.

Virginia facility did strap migrant kids to chairs, but state investigators say it wasn't abuse

87yo Great-Grandmother Tasered in Her Breast by Police While Cutting Dandelions with a Knife

Court Bans Harmful Pesticide that Trump EPA Tried to Keep on the Market

How Monsanto Plants Stories, Suppresses Science & Silences Dissent to Sell a Cancer-Linked Chemical

Hundreds of accused priests listed in Pennsylvania report on Catholic Church sex abuse

Republicans are gaining ground on democrats in the congressional generic

August 13, 2018

 
War or Peace?
By Finian Cunningham
Frankly, the United States does not have a government. It is a regime.    Continue

======

U.S. is Complicit in Child Slaughter in Yemen
By Kathy Kelly
U.S. companies Raytheon, General Dynamics, Boeing, and Lockheed Martin have sold billions of dollars’ worth of weapons to Saudi Arabia.    Continue

======

US Bomb Parts Found at Yemen Site Where Saudi Arabia Killed 51 People Including 29 Children
By RT
At the scene of the strike as charred bodies were recovered, locals found fragments of the bomb used.    Continue

======

What If There Were No Official Narratives?
By Caitlin Johnstone
What if there was no dominating elite class telling the public how they were meant to interpret events and situations?    Continue

======

Jeremy Corbyn for U.K. Prime Minister
By Gideon Levy
Jeremy Corbyn has fought his whole life for the values he believes in. Israelis have never been led by an Israeli Corbyn, nor by anyone who can hold a candle to him.    Continue

======

Haaretz Reports Israel Targeting Civilians in Gaza as “Collective Punishment”
By Whitney Webb
The admission in Haaretz is the ultimate expression of the IDF’s impunity, it now openly admits that it is targeting civilians in the world’s largest “open-air prison.”    Continue

======

To Hell With US Jobs, Let's Get Iran!
By Eric Margolis
Trump & Co. are trying to force Turkey to bend the knee and support US-Israeli-Saudi policy goals.    Continue

======

Butina Case: Neo-McCarthyism Engulfs America
By Philip M. Giraldi
If you are a Russian and you are caught talking to anyone in any way influential, there is potentially hell to pay because the FBI will be watching you.    Continue

======

The Law As Weapon
By Paul Craig Roberts
What the Manafort trial should tell you is how utterly and totally corrupt the United States is.    Continue

======

The Age of Cretinism
By Pratap Bhanu Mehta
Rather than seeking to close the gap between what we are and what we claim to be, it takes the prevalence of hypocrisy to be a licence for a new kind of moral nihilism.    Continue

======

Afghanistan: 120 killed in Ghazni: Taliban assault on the Afghan strategic city of Ghazni has entered its fourth day, with the death toll climbing above 300, including at least 20 civilians,

Taliban hails 'helpful' US talks as boost to Afghan peace process

Death toll in Syria blast climbs to 69 - Observatory: The number of people killed when an explosion ripped through a building thought to be storing weapons in rebel-held northwestern Syria has climbed to 69 including 17 children

36 killed in explosion near Syrian-Turkish border

3 Syrian Soldiers Killed, 8 Wounded in Shelling by Militants - Russian Military

IS chief al-Baghdadi clinically dead following successful airstrike in Syria: Source

Baghdadi seriously wounded by Iraqi airstrikes in Syria – Sumaria TV

ISIS on the verge of collapse as Syrian troops liberate most of east Sweida

Five drones downed by Russian military near Khmeimim Air Base in Syria as UAV attacks increase

Arab nations spent $137 billion to arm rebels in Syria – Miqdad

Iraqi army attack, kills 14 militants in Salahudin

Islamic State fighters kill five locals in attack near Baiji oil refinery

Iraqi PM walks back on commitment to US sanctions on Iran: Baghdad to honour dollar ban but not all US sanctions on Iran.

Iran Guards say they killed 10 militants near Iraq border

Iran tests ballistic missile for first time this year: report

Iran's Khamenei: No war, no talks with Trump

Report: Mass torture in network of UAE-run prisons in south Yemen: A report reveals the existence of 27 sites used to torture and sexually abuse Yemeni detainees.

Secret Israeli Report 'Reveals Armed Drone Killed' Four Children Playing on Gaza Beach

95 pct of Gaza industrial factories shut down due to Israeli crossing point closure: officials

Trump Regime Seeks to Withhold Millions in Aid to Palestinians

Netanyahu met Egypt's al-Sisi to discuss Gaza

Saudi refuses Hajj visas for Palestinian refugees in Jordan

Turkish lira drops further despite central bank action: Erdogan lashes out at economic ‘traitors’ as currency crisis escalates

Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdogan blames lira crash on Donald Trump 'plot'

Erdogan warns Trump that Turkey will 'find new friends' as US row deepens

Russia SHUNS US dollar for trade as it joins Turkey in protest against Trump

At least 40 killed by paramilitaries in Ethiopia over weekend

Egypt says 12 'terrorists' killed in Sinai shootout

The US and France backs Cameroon’s reign of terror:

S. Korea, DPRK agree to hold summit in Pyongyang in September

China rejects allegations of detaining million Uighurs in camps in Xinjiang

The Massacre of Inn Din: How Rohingya Are Lynched and Held Responsible

Putin has not yet ordered retaliatory sanctions against United States - Kremlin

Watch: Oliver Stone: Putin is ready to negotiate on everything but Russia’s national interests

Russia says will cut holdings of US securities amid sanctions - RIA; Russia has sold off more than 84% of its US holdings in recent months, Treasury data released last month shows.

Russia and Iran among five coastal nations forging landmark Caspian Sea deal: A legally binding convention that prevents Caspian nations from opening their borders to third party aggressors – such as the US or Nato – or allowing any foreign military presence at all on Caspian waters is a triumph for Putin

May's disastrous Chequers plan sends voters to UKIP - Corbyn government LOOMS

Watch: Ex-Amazon workers talk of 'horrendous' conditions: Hundreds of employees of online store Amazon on zero hours contracts are subjected to a regime described as "horrendous" and "exhausting",

Three More Colombian Social Leaders Murdered in 48 Hours

Venezuela 'drone attack': Maduro would accept FBI help to investigate the assassination attempt against him

Argentina: After Abortion Vote, Thousands Renounce Catholic Church Membership

Worker Charged With Sexually Molesting Eight Children at Immigrant Shelter

Adopted and Undocumented - He Grew Up Thinking He Was American — Until He Was Deported

In America, Naturalized Citizens No Longer Have an Assumption of Permanence

Advice to Canada on Saudi Arabia: stand firm

10 Numbers That Prove That America’s Current Financial Condition Is A Horror Show

Bayer shares fall up to 14% after Monsanto’s Roundup lawsuit

Feds Collect Record Individual Income Taxes Through July; Still Run $683.9B Deficit

IRS Documents Revealing McCain’s Subcommittee Staff Director Urged IRS to Engage in “Financially Ruinous” Targeting

UN human rights chief: Trump's attacks on press 'close to incitement of violence': He said Trump’s example was giving license to authoritarian leaders to crack down on the media in ways they had not previously dared to.

Former Virginia Gov. McAuliffe: ‘We ought to look at’ impeachment of Trump: President Trump, has been “bear-hugging” Russian President Vladimir Putin while the foreign leader attempts to undermine U.S. democracy.

Trump Says Jeff Sessions Is ‘Scared Stiff’ At ‘Rigged’ Justice Department: The president accused the attorney general of being MIA

Bribery Trial Reveals Jeff Sessions’ Role in Blocking EPA Action Targeting One of His Biggest Donors: His Senate office coordinated closely with Drummond Coal and its lawyers to derail an environmental cleanup.

Trump Reacts After Peter Strzok Fired From The FBI; Strzok Attorney Responds

Peter Strzok Tweets Link To $150,000 GoFundMe For "Lost Income And Legal Fees"

Trump adviser Stone's associate held in contempt in Russia probe -reports

Houston congressman sold biotech stock 10 days before insider trading case came to a head

Deception on Capitol Hill: It's plainly wrong for a member of Congress to collaborate with a public relations firm to produce knowingly deceptive testimony on an important issue.

Omarosa claims she heard Trump N-word tape after book's publication

‘Evil genius’ Trump will be ‘last president of US’, filmmaker Michael Moore warns

For Most Trump Voters, ‘Very Warm’ Feelings for Him Endured: A detailed look at the 2016 electorate, based on voter records

Conservatives call for constitutional intervention last seen 230 years ago: There is growing confidence in some conservative circles that the next one is right around the corner – and could spell disaster for entitlement programs like medicare and social security, as well court decisions like Roe v Wade.

Democrats More Positive About Socialism Than Capitalism

 

August 10, 2018

U.S. Curbs on Russian Banks Would Be Act Of Economic War - PM
By Andrey Ostroukh, Tom Balmforth, and Patrica Zengerle
Medvedev said Moscow would take economic, political or other retaliatory measures against the United States if Washington targeted Russian banks.    Continue

======

Iran Sanctions Are an Act of War
By Will Porter
The intended effect of sanctions is to impose suffering on civilians in hopes they will pressure their own government to comply with US demands.    Continue

======

======

Mattis: Putin Is Trying To “Undermine America’s Moral Authority”
By Caitlin Johnstone
The United States is arguably the hub of the most pernicious and dangerous force ever assembled in human history.    Continue

======

Gina Haspel CIA Torture Cables Declassified
By Tom Blanton - National Security Archive
CIA director Gina Haspel described graphic acts of deliberate physical torture.    Continue

======

BBC Bows to Pressure from Israel and Changes Gaza Headline
By Middle East Monitor
The BBC completely changed the headline: “Gaza air strikes ‘kill woman and child’ after rockets hit Israel.”    Continue

======

Argentina at a Crossroads
By Alberto L. Zuppi and César Chelala
Is there any chance for Argentina to eliminate the chronic illness of corruption in its social life?    Continue

======

Rotten To The Core
Clinton Foundation Tax Return Shows It's A Scam
It took 486 people, plus $126.1 million in wages and expenses to give away $5.1 million.    Continue

======

======

Funerals for 40 children killed in Yemen strike: The Saudi-led coalition in Yemen says it will investigate Thursday's airstrike that hit a bus full of schoolchildren. But the UN wants an independent investigation,

Syria: At least 22 killed in Idlib and Aleppo airstrikes

France Has Answered Russia’s Call for Help in Syria. Will the U.S.?

Iraq: 12 people killed, injured in two bomb blasts, southeast of Mosul

Five militants killed, two others arrested near Iraqi-Syrian borders

Recount shows Iraq's Sadr retains election victory, no major changes

WikiLeaks : Saudi & Qatari governments funded and gave logistical support to ISIS confirms email from Hillary Clinton

Israeli Occupation Force Troops Kill Palestinian Medic at Gaza Protes: Israeli soldiers shot dead a Palestinian paramedic who was tending to casualties at an anti-Israel protest in the Gaza Strip on Friday

Israeli Journalist: UAE Pilot Joined Bombing of Gaza

Israel continues to mistreat relatives of thousands of Palestinians held illegally in its territory

Immediate risk' of mass hospital closures and infrastructure collapse for 2 million in Gaza

Peace Activist Uri Avnery Hospitalized in Critical Condition

Yemen: State Dept deflects questions on US-backed Saudi strike that killed dozens of children (VIDEO)

Barf alert: Statement by Ambassador Haley on the Strike Against Civilians in Yemen: The death of innocent civilians in war, under any circumstance, to include their use as human shields, is unacceptable.

Turkey Wants to Arrest American Troops for Ties to 'Terrorist Group'

Turkey's currency takes 20% dive to all-time low after Trump adds new tariff rates: Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan called on citizens to convert other currencies and gold into lira.

US bank shares fall as Turkey fears spread: Shares of US banks are following their European counterparts lower on Friday, touching off fears of fallout around the world.

Erdogan urges Turks to dump dollar to support lira

Boko Haram militants kill 17 Nigerian soldiers

A Slaughter in Silence: How a brutal ethnic cleansing campaign in DRC was made worse by Trump's “America First” policies and the world's neglect.

Taliban Fighters Try to Take Afghan City, Killing at Least 14

China gives SIX WARNINGS to US Navy in South China Sea ‘This is China...LEAVE IMMEDIATELY’

Watch: US Navy plane warned off by Chinese military

U.S. Orders Chinese Company to Sell Manhattan Building Near Trump Tower

Fact or propaganda? One million Muslim Uighurs held in secret China camps: UN panel

North Korea lashes out at US diplomats over sanctions

Russia firmly rejects new US sanctions, Lavrov tells Pompeo

Russia, China object to U.S. proposal to blacklist Russian bank at U.N. - diplomats

Russia to work on retaliatory measures against new U.S. sanctions - Foreign Ministry

Russia may stop using US dollar for mutual payments – senator

Russia has breached Florida's election systems, Sen. Bill Nelson says

South Florida election heads say no evidence Russians have breached voter systems, despite Nelson's statement

Donald Trump's National Security Officials Pushed to Complete NATO Deal Without the President, Report Claims

Dutch anti-immigrant politician takes own life after claiming rape by ‘Muslim gang’

Norway to test free heroin for drug addicts: Already adopted or tested in Switzerland, the Netherlands and Denmark

U.S. Military Aid To Egypt Gives A 'Green Light' To Repression, Say Rights Advocates

How the UK sees opportunity and profit in Sisi's repressive Egypt: The scale of its commercial interests makes Britain probably the leading apologist for Sisi's regime

BBC Asks Residents To Install Cam To Spy On Assange: The BBC has sent a letter to residents living opposite the Ecuadorian embassy in London, asking if they can install cameras on their property to cover “the Julian Assange story.”

A recap why Assange's revelations have angered Washington

Infowars’ Alex Jones claims 5.6 million extra subscribers since being censored, so did he win?

Venezuela: Juan Requesens Confesses Participation In Attack Against Maduro Under Julio

Venezuela Assassination Attempt: Maduro Survives but Journalism Doesn't

Climate Change Destroys the Lives of the Poorest Human Beings First: History will not look kindly on us for this, or for any other aspect of our environmental record.
 

US: Black Panther Robert Seth Hayes Released After 45 Years

Watch: Adicted To Technology - Most People Don't Even Realize What's Coming

Monsanto ordered to pay $289m as jury rules weedkiller caused man's cancer

US Spending On Interest Hits All Time High As Budget Deficit Soars To $684 Billion

Gina Haspel CIA Torture Cables Declassified

Official documents show CIA head Gina Haspel directly supervised waterboarding at “Black Site” in Thailand.

US Can Afford 'Unlimited War' But Not Medicare: Ocasio-Cortez

DC's police and protesters prepare for white nationalists

NFL players kneel, raise fists or sit out national anthem: Trump blasts players for continued protests

Omarosa claims she HEARD rumored Trump 'n-word' audio

Racist Ohio Driver Says Viral Video of Him Calling Black Man a N***er Ruined His Life

Mystery surrounds former sex-ring operator's Mueller probe role


August 09, 2018

Saudi, UAE, USA, UK and France Slaughter Dozens of People, Including at Least 29 Children on School Bus
By ICH and Agencies
There can be no case, for selling weapons to the Saudi Regime.   Continue

======

Canada’s Liberal Image Gets Snared By $11.5bn Saudi Arms Deal
By Finian Cunningham
The Saudis know they can play hardball, because when it comes to human rights the Trudeau government is snared by its own hypocrisy and liberal vanity.     Continue

======

It’s Time for Canada to Take the Next Step Against Saudi Arabia
By Stephen Maher
Saudi regime is one of the worst human rights abusers in the world, ruled by a hothead. Canada should stop selling it weapons.     Continue

======

Neocons Concoct Threat of “Iranian Hackers” to Justify Preemptive “Counterattack” Against Iran
By Whitney Webb
American and Israeli media have been circulating the claim that Iran is likely to respond to U.S.-imposed sanctions by conducting “cyberattacks” against the United States.     Continue

======

Ex-CIA Agent Reveals Signs Of Imminent Iran Invasion:
Watch - Jimmy Dore Interviews John Kiriakou
John Kiriakou explains what the signs will be that an Iran invasion is about to happen.   Continue

======

Our Government Is Awash With Foreign Citizens
By Chuck Baldwin
I have been able to identify well over 100 high-level members of the U.S. government who are citizens of Israel.    Continue

======

Israel Is The Real Problem
By Media Lens
'Jeremy Corbyn must stop pandering to Labour's Israel lobby'.     Continue

======

"You are Criminalizing Diplomacy"
Must Watch
Stephen Cohen and Max Boot debate If Trump-Putin Summit at Helsinki.    Continue

======

America the Unexceptional
By William S. Smith
Believing we're exempt from the moral law because we stand for "democracy" is the worst mistake we've ever made.     Continue

======

Depositors – Not Taxpayers – Will Take the Hit for the Next ‘2008’ Crash Because Major Banks May Use the ‘Bail-In’ System
By Barbara G. Ellis, Ph.D.
The only other alternatives for depositors in a bail-in still seem to be the hiding the cash under the mattress or a coffee can behind the beans and peas.     Continue

======

Red Cross condemns 'reprehensible' Yemen attacks that killed 55 civilians

A Yemeni journalist, said there were no Houthi fighters in the vicinity of the market where the attack took place.: "There is no military installation nearby ... but the Saudis are known to have done this many times - target schools, weddings and so on."

3 Citizens Killed, Injured in US-Saudi Aggression Raid on Hodeidah

In case you missed it: U.S. Deepens Role in Yemen Fight, Offers Gulf Allies Airstrike-Target Assistance: American military to provide information to fine-tune list of targets in important port

In case you missed it: US still pouring weapons into Yemen war: The United States sold more than $650 million in weapons to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates as the Yemen war expanded last year, according to a study released Thursday.

In case you missed it: Britain and the US must stop fuelling the bloody Saudi war on Yemen: Beyond the US and the UK, many other countries – including France, Spain and Italy – profess their support for human rights and adherence to the treaty while similarly lavishing hi-tech weaponry on the Saudi coalition.

Yemeni Army and Popular Committees Confronting US-Saudi Aggression in All Fronts

Paedophiles shot and hanged from crane after boy, 10, is raped and killed

Saudi Arabia crucified a man in Mecca while aggressively calling out Canada over human rights

Russia downs militant drone near Syria’s Hmeimim airbase

'Pain, agony': Gaza mourns as Israel kills pregnant mother and toddler

Watch: Bloodstains & debris: VIDEO inside house where Israeli airstrike killed pregnant woman, her toddler

Israel bombs Gaza, Palestinians fire rockets

Deported Swedish activist: ‘This is how Israel treated us in prison’

US Firefighters Join Israelis to Battle Arson Blazes from Gaza

UK: Labour defends John McDonnell (Shadow chancellor) for saying Israel attempted 'genocide' against Palestinians: Party says he 'will always stand up for the victims of such disproportionate violence'

War-torn Syria recorded 68,000 killed in 2017: Registry chief

Leaflets dropped over Syria's Idlib call for reconciliation

Syria Retakes High Ground on Israeli and Jordanian Borders

Iraqi troops kill 14 Islamic State militants, destroy 4 armored vehicles in Anbar

Iraq: 6 army personnel killed, injured in Islamic State attack between Diyala, Salahuddin

Iraq: Two Islamic State members killed in an operation, southwest of Kirkuk: Police

Iraq to Stop Trading With Iran in US Dollars Due to Sanctions - Gov't Spokesman

Switzerland recommends firms continue Iran activity

Trump’s sanctions against Iran are a clear breach of international law

The Knife in Iran’s Back: Trump Reinstates Sanctions, Opening the Door to Chaos in Asia and Europe: China, Russia and Turkey have already indicated that they will not buckle to U.S. pressure

Help Terminate Iran’s Sanctions NOW! Sign This Petition

11 killed in Mali ethnic attack

Dozens of Afghan soldiers killed in attack on base

3 killed in suicide bomb blast in W. Afghan city

North Korea 'rejected US timeline to cut nuclear arsenal by 60-70 per cent' 

Iran's Rouhani tells North Korea that US cannot be trusted

China’s hypersonic aircraft, Starry Sky-2, could be used to carry nuclear missiles at six times the speed of sound

‘No surprise if Moscow recalls ambassador’: Russia will lash out against new sanctions, say experts

Pompeo Slaps On Major Russia Sanctions...Over Unproven UK Poisoning!

Russian lawmaker says rocket engine exports to U.S. could be restricted: RIA

Britain welcomes U.S. sanctions for Russia over alleged Skripal poisoning

South Florida election heads say NO evidence Russians have breached voter systems, despite Nelson's statement

Assange Considers Offer to Appear Before US Senate Committee

Assange Ecuadorean Citizen But Gov't Denies Him Rights: Expert

A Four Person NATO-Funded Team Advises Facebook On Flagging "Propaganda"

It’s not a ‘defense’ of Alex Jones to argue that we’re on a slippery slope of internet censorship

The U.S. Deploys Its Third Major Attempt To Destabilize The Government Of Evo Morales:

Venezuela's Maduro links 2 opposition lawmakers to drone attack

Acclaimed Venezuelan News Site Latest Victim in Facebook Censorship Spree

Mexico: 20 Bodies Found in Guadalajara In Just One Week

Canada PM says will press Saudi Arabia on rights, offers olive branch

How Does Canada Escape Prosecution for Genocide?

'Turn the Plane Around': U.S. Government Wrongfully Deports Asylum Seekers

Over 130 immigrant workers arrested in ICE raids in Minnesota and Nebraska: Hundreds of immigration agents and police in military gear carried out Gestapo-style roundups at roughly a dozen agricultural job sites.

Melania Trump’s parents came to the U.S. thanks to immigration system Trump wants to eliminate: The first lady's parents became U.S. citizens Thursday thanks to the family-based migration system.

Watch: Cop Publicly Execute Man, Shooting Him in the Back as He Ran Away

WATCH: Cop Attacks Handcuffed, Blindfolded Man for No Reason, Injuring Him—Not Guilty

Lawsuit Confronts Extortion of U.S. Prisoners by Electronic Monitoring Firm

$1 An Hour to Fight Largest Fire in CA History: Are Prison Firefighting Programs Slave Labor?

Under fire: the perpetual US war on Native Americans: On the International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples, Native Americans have little to cheer about.

Virginia GOP candidate attacks Muslim gubernatorial candidate as an ‘ISIS commie’

Pence pushes for Space Force by 2020 : "Other nations are seeking to disrupt our space-based systems and challenge American supremacy"

'A Nonsense Idea': Retired 4-Star Army General Explains Why Trump's Space Force Is Ludicrous — and Probably Doomed to Fail

======

Key Articles

ICH: Meet The Man Who Made Trump President

Zionism's Jewish Enemy

Video

Alan Hart Interviews Professor Ilan Pappe, Israel’

US Protection Racket Root of Korea Conflict

By Finian Cunningham

The conflict emanates from Washington and is perpetuated by Washington. Why? To justify what would otherwise be seen as simply outrageous US militarism in the Asia Pacific.

Iran: The Real Story Versus the Cover Story: By Mark H Gaffney

The American people need to know the truth. This is a phony crisis

America's War for Global Domination: by Michel Chossudovsky

The wars on Afghanistan and Iraq are part of a broader military agenda, which was launched at the end of the Cold War. The ongoing war agenda is a continuation of the 1991 Gulf War and the NATO led wars on Yugoslavia (1991-2001).
 

The Plan is for the United States to rule the world: By David Armstrong

The overt theme is unilateralism, but it is ultimately a story of domination. It calls for the United States to maintain its overwhelming military superiority and prevent new rivals from rising up to challenge it on the world stage.
 

Lets Not Forget: Bush Planned Iraq 'Regime Change' Before Becoming President - By Neil Mackay

A SECRET blueprint for US global domination reveals that President Bush and his cabinet were planning a premeditated attack on Iraq to secure 'regime change' even before he took power in January 2001.
 

The president's real goal in Iraq: By JAY BOOKMAN

29 September 2002. - The official story on Iraq has never made sense.
 

The Project for the New American Century: By William Rivers Pitt

02/25/03 - The Project for the New American Century, or PNAC, is a Washington-based think tank created in 1997. Above all else, PNAC desires and demands one thing: The establishment of a global American empire to bend the will of all nations.
 

Memo: Bush made intel fit Iraq policy: By WARREN P. STROBEL and JOHN WALCOTT

A highly classified British memo, leaked in the midst of Britain's just-concluded election campaign, indicates that President Bush decided to overthrow Iraqi President Saddam Hussein by summer 2002 and was determined to ensure that U.S. intelligence data supported his policy.
 

UK Ministers Knew WMD Was "Excuse": By Michael Smith

MINISTERS were warned in July 2002 that Britain was committed to taking part in an American-led invasion of Iraq and they had no choice but to find a way of making it legal.
 

Iran: The Real Story Versus the Cover Story: By Mark H Gaffney

The American people need to know the truth. This is a phony crisis

Will Iran Be Next?: by Mark Gaffney

Those who have hoped that a U.S. military victory in Iraq would somehow bring about a more peaceful world are in for a rude awakening. The final resolution of this war and the U.S. occupation of Iraq will likely not be the end, rather, only the prelude to a succession of future crises: in Kashmir, Syria, North Korea, and Iran.
 

Does Iran's President Want Israel Wiped Off The Map? - Does He Deny The Holocaust?

An analysis of media rhetoric on its way to war against Iran - Commenting on the alleged statements of Iran's President Ahmadinejad .

 

  "Rebuilding America's Defenses"
Blueprint of the PNAC Plan for U.S. Global Hegemony


Some people have compared it to Hitler's publication of Mein Kampf, which was ignored until after the war was over.
Today's Papers


Asia Times (HK)
Boston Globe
Chicago Tribune
Christian Science
Detroit Free Press    Indian Express
Globe and Mail
Guardian/Observer International Herald Tribune
LA Times
London Times
Miami Herald
Moscow Times
Mpls.StarTribune
NY Newsday
NY Post
NY Sun
NY Times
The Oregonian
Other Foreign
Phil Inquirer
Pioneer Press
Pravda (Eng.)
SF Chronicle
SF Examiner

 Sydney Morning Herald 
Telegraph U.K.   
The Independent (London)
Times of India
Toronto Star
USA Today
Washington Post

Washington Times

Front Page Image
New York Times
Washington Post
New York Post
NY Daily News

Magazines

Am. Demographics
Am. Prospect
Atlantic Monthly
The Baffler
Billboard
Bust
Col Journ Review
Counterpunch
  
CP List
DoubleTake
Editor & Publisher
Entertainment Weakly
Found
Forbes
Fortune
Gadfly
Harper's Index
In These Times
Intervention
Left Business Observer
  
LBO Talk
Left Turn
McSweeney's
Mother Jones
New Statesman
New York
Newsweek
NY Observer
Progressive Populist
Reason
Roll Call   
The Economist
The Nation
The New Republic
The Onion
The Progressive
Time
Variety
Wash Monthly
Weekly Standard

Online Only

About.com
Allafrica.com
Altercation
American Reporter
Antiwar.com
Antiterroristas
Arts & Letters
Arts Journal
Atrios
Blah3
BlogLeft
Blogcritics
Blowback
Blue Ear
BookNotes
Bully
BuzzFlash     

 Civil America 
Common Dreams
Consortium News
Corante
Cosmoetica
Counterspin Central  The Crisis Papers
Dack
Daily Howler
Democrats.com
Drudge Report
E-Ariana
Eat the State
Ethel the Blog     Free Speech News
Fimoculous
Flak
G21
Getting It
The Hamster
Homeless Guy
In Arguendo      InformationTimes
Inside.com
InstaPundit
Intervention
I Want Media
Jim Romenesko's MediaNews
LA Examiner

The Laura Flanders Show

Liberal Slant
Lying Media Bastards
Media Watch
MediaStudy.com
Media Whores OL
Moon Farmer
Moose & Squirrel
Narco News
Nerve
New California Media
News Insider
No Logo
Obscure Store
Online Journalism Review
The Progress Report
Punditwatch
The Rag
Rantburg
Real Joe
Rittenhouse Review
Salon
Seeing the Forest
Simpleton
Slate
Spinsanity

Swans
O'Reillysucks.com
Smug
Sp!ked
Talking Points
TalkLeft
Tapped
Telepolis
The Daily Planet
The Smoking Gun
Tom Paine
Tres Producers
Truthout
 
Uggabugga
Vanitysite
Smirking Chimp
Wired News
Word
World Socialists
Yahoo Media

Alternative Weeklies


Boston Phoenix
Chicago Reader
Dallas Observer
DC/City Paper
Det/Metro Times
LA Weekly
New Times' Index
New York Press People's Weekly News
Seattle Stranger
Seattle Weekly
SF Bay Guardian
TC/City Pages
Village Voice

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.