US-Iraqi Agreement: Leaked
By Raed Jarrar
-- - - I read about a leaked copy of the US-Iraqi agreement
a few days ago when a radio station in Iraq mentioned some of
its details, then it was mentioned in some Arab newspapers like
Al-Qabas and Al-Sharq Al-Awsat. A couple of days ago, one Iraqi
website (linked to an Iraqi armed resistance group) published
the leaked draft on their web page for less than a couple of
days before their website went offline. (Thankfully, I
downloaded the 21 pages agreement and saved them before their
server went down)
I spent this weekend translating it, and just finished now. you
can read the 27 articles August 6th draft below. The title of
this draft is "Agreement regarding the activities and presence
of U.S. forces, and its withdrawal from Iraq", but this is the
same agreement that is referred to as a "status of forces
agreement" or "SOFA" or framework or whatever. It's the result
of months of negotiations after Bush and Al-Maliki signed the "Declaration
of Principles for a Long-Term Relationship of Cooperation and
Friendship Between the Republic of Iraq and the United States of
America" by the end of last year.
This leaked draft is a treasure of information. It's the first
time any document related to this topic is made public. It shows
how weak the Iraqi negotiations team is (it is really pathetic
to read their "suggestions" on how to fix the disaster of an
There are many outrageous articles in the agreement that
violates Iraq's sovereignty and independence, and gives the U.S.
occupation authorities unprecedented rights and privileges, but
what has draw my attention the most (so far) are three major
1- the agreement does not discuss anything about a complete US
withdrawal from Iraq. Instead, it talks about withdrawing
"combat troops" without defining what is the difference between
combat troops and other troops. It is very clear that the US is
planning to stay indefinitely in permanent bases in Iraq (or as
the agreement calls them: "installations and areas agreed upon")
where the U.S. will continue training and supporting Iraqis
armed forces for the foreseeable future.
2- the agreement goes into effect when the two executive
branches exchange "memos", instead of waiting for Iraqi
parliament's ratification. This is really dangerous, and it is
shocking because both the Iraqi and U.S. executive branches have
been assuring the Iraqi parliament that no agreement will go
into effect without being ratified by Iraq's MPs.
3- this agreement is the blueprint for keeping other occupation
armies (aka Multi-national forces) in Iraq on the long run. This
explains the silence regarding what will happed to other
occupiers (like the U.K. forces) after the expiration of the UN
mandate at the end of this year.
It is really disturbing to read how the U.S. government is still
going down the same path of intervention and domination in Iraq.
This agreement will not be accepted by the Iraqi people and
their elected representatives in the Iraqi parliament, and if
the U.S. and Iraqi executive branches try to consider it valid
anyway it will lead to more violence in Iraq.
Agreement Regarding the
Activities and Presence of U.S. forces,
and its Withdrawal from
and the U.S., referred to here as “both sides”, affirm the
importance of: supporting their joint security, participating in
global peace and stability, fighting terrorism, cooperation in
the fields of security and defense, and deterring threats
against Iraq’s sovereignty, security, and territorial integrity.
sides affirm that this cooperation is based on mutual respect of
both sides’ sovereignty in accordance with the United Nations’
goals and principles.
sides want to achieve mutual understanding to support their
collaboration, without jeopardizing Iraq’s sovereignty over its
land, water, and sky, and based on the mutual guarantees given
as equal and independent sovereign partners.
sides have agreed on:
Scope and goal
agreement specifies the rules and basic needs that regulate the
temporary presence and activities of the U.S. troops and its
withdrawal from Iraq.
“Installations and areas agreed upon” are the installations and
areas agreed upon owned by the Iraqi government and used by the
U.S. forces from the date this agreement goes into effect. Such
installations and areas agreed upon will be decided in a list
provided by the U.S. forces and reviewed by both sides. Such
“installations and areas agreed upon” include those provided to
the U.S. forces during the time of this agreement after the
approval of both sides.
Iraqi suggestion: The Iraqi delegation has asked
the U.S. delegation to submit a list of structures and areas
requested to be discussed and agreed upon and add it to the
agreement as an appendix.
“U.S. forces” is the entity that includes the members of the
armed forces, civilian members, and all the equipments and
materials owned by the U.S. forces in Iraq.
“Members of the armed forces” include any member of the U.S.
army, navy, air force, marines or coast guard.
“Civilian members” include any civilian working for the U.S.
Ministry of Defense, excluding those members who usually reside
“U.S. contractors” or “workers hired by U.S. contractors”
include non Iraqi persons and entities and employees who are
U.S. or third country citizens and who are in Iraq to supply
goods, services or security to the U.S. forces or on behalf of
it in accordance to a contract. This does not include Iraqi
“Official vehicles”: commercial vehicles that may be modified
for security reasons, and are designed originally to transport
individuals on different terrains.
“Military vehicles”: include all vehicles used by the U.S. armed
forces, that were originally designed for combat operations, and
have special numbers and signs in accordance to the regulations
and laws of U.S. armed forces.
“defense equipment” include systems, weapons, ammunition,
equipment, and materials used in conventional wars only, that
the U.S. forces need in accordance to this agreement, and that
are not connected in any way to weapons of mass destruction
(chemical weapons, nuclear weapons, radiological weapons,
biological weapons, and waste related to such weapons).
“storage”: keeping defense equipment needed by the U.S. forces
for activities agreed upon in this agreement.
“taxes and custom”: include all taxes, customs (including border
customs), and any other tariffs enforced by the Iraqi government
and its entities and provinces in accordance to Iraqi laws and
regulations. This does not include money paid for the Iraqi
government in exchange for services required or used by the U.S.
Rule of Law
members of the U.S. armed forces and civilian members must
follow Iraqi laws, customs, traditions, and agreements while
conducting military operations in accordance to this agreement.
They must also avoid any activities that do not agree with the
text and spirit of this agreement. It is the responsibility of
the U.S. to take all necessary measures to insure this.
the purpose of deterring external and/or internal threats
against the Republic of Iraq, and to continue the collaboration
to defeat Al-Qaeda in Iraq and other outlaw groups, temporarily,
both sides have agreed on:
The Iraqi government asks for the temporary help of the U.S.
forces to support Iraq’s effort in maintaining security and
stability of Iraq, including the collaboration in conducting
operations against Al-Qaeda and other terrorist groups and
outlaw groups, including the remains of the former regime.
Military operations that are conducted in accordance to this
agreement with the approval of the Iraqi government and with
full coordination with Iraqi authorities. Coordinating such
military operations will be supervised by a joint mobile
operations command centers (JMOCC) created in accordance with
this agreement. Any military issues that are not resolved by
these centers are submitted to a joint committee of ministries.
Operations must respect the Iraqi constitution and laws, and
Iraqi sovereignty and national interests as defined by the Iraqi
government. The U.S. forces must respect the Iraqi laws,
traditions, and customs.
Both sides will continue their efforts in collaboration and
improving Iraq’s security capacity, including training,
supplying, supporting, founding, and upgrading administrative
There is nothing in this agreement that limits either sides’
rights of self defense.
Iraq owns all non-mobile buildings and structures that are built
on the ground in the installations and areas agreed upon,
including those built, used, enhanced, or changed by the U.S.
The U.S. is responsible for all expenses of construction,
remodeling, modification in installations and areas agreed upon
used exclusively by the U.S.. The U.S. forces will consult with
the Iraqi authorities regarding the works of construction,
remodeling, and modification. The U.S. will seek the Iraqi
government’s approval for major construction or modification
projects. In case of shared use of installations and areas
agreed upon both sides are responsible for expenses. The U.S.
forces will pay the fees of services used exclusively by the
U.S.Both sides cover the expenses of shared installations and
areas agreed upon.
the case of a discovery of historic or cultural sites, or the
discovery of a strategic natural resource, in the installations
and areas agreed upon, all work of construction or modification
or remodeling must stop immediately, and the Iraqi
representatives in the joint committee must be informed.
The United States will return all installations and areas agreed
upon and any non-mobile buildings that were constructed,
remodeled, or modified under this agreement, according to
mechanisms and priorities agreed upon by the joint committee.
They will be returned to Iraq without charge, unless both sides
The U.S. will return all installations and areas agreed upon
that have special cultural or political importance and that were
constructed, remodeled, or modified under this agreement,
according to mechanisms and priorities agreed upon by the joint
committee. When this agreement goes into effect, the U.S. will
immediately return the properties listed in the attached
appendix and mentioned in the letter sent by the U.S. embassy to
the Iraqi minister of foreign affairs dated (…)
What remains of installations and areas agreed upon will be
returned to the Iraqi authorities after this agreement expires
or if the U.S. forces no longer needs them.
The U.S. forces and U.S. contractors maintain their ownership of
all equipment, materials, supplements, mobile structures, and
other mobile properties imported to Iraq or obtained in Iraq in
accordance to the agreement.
Usage of Installations and areas
Iraq guarantees the accessibility of the U.S. forces and U.S.
contractors to installations and areas agreed upon according to
what both sides agree on, while insuring that Iraq’s sovereignty
is not undermined. Installations and areas agreed upon will be
returned to Iraq without charge, unless both sides agree
Iraq authorizes the U.S. forces to practice all the authorities
and have all the rights to manage construct, use, maintain, and
secure installations and areas agreed upon. Both sides
coordinate and collaborate regarding shared installations and
areas agreed upon.
The United States forces control the entrances of the
installations and areas agreed upon. Both sides coordinate their
work in shared installations and areas agreed upon based on
mechanisms put by the joint military operations committee.
Storage of defense equipments
The U.S. forces are authorized to store in the installations and
areas agreed upon systems, weapons, ammunition, equipment, and
materials used by the U.S. forces and related to the U.S.
temporary mission in Iraq. Weapons that are used by the U.S.
forces are not connected in any way to weapons of mass
destruction (chemical weapons, nuclear weapons, radiological
weapons, biological weapons, and waste related to such weapons).
The U.S. forces control the use and transportation of such
weapons. The U.S. forces guarantees than no weapons or
ammunition will be stored near residential areas, and it will
inform the Iraqi government with important information regarding
their amount and types.
sides agree to implement this agreement while protecting nature
and human security and health. The U.S. complies with Iraqi
environmental laws, and Iraq should comply with its laws and
regulations to protect the health of the U.S. armed forces.
Movement of vehicles, ships, and
U.S. forces’ vehicles and ships are permitted to enter and exit
and move inside Iraqi territories for the purposes of this
agreement. The joint committee puts the appropriate regulations
to control this movement.
U.S. government airplanes and civilian airplanes contracted with
the U.S. Department of Defense are authorized to fly in the
Iraqi airspace, refueling in the air, landing and departing in
Iraq. The Iraqi authorities will give a one year authorization
to the mentioned airplanes to land and depart from Iraq for the
purposes of this agreement. No parties are allowed aboard U.S.
government airplanes and civilian airplanes contracted with the
U.S. Department of Defense and related ships and vehicles
without U.S. forces consent, and they cannot be searched. The
joint committee puts the appropriate regulations to facilitate
Air traffic control and surveillance are handed over immediately
to the Iraqi authorities as soon as this agreement goes into
Iraq can ask for the U.S. forces to temporarily take
responsibility of the control and surveillance of the Iraqi
airspace, and these tasks will be handed over to the Iraqi
government upon its request. The Iraqi authorities will
participate in the control and surveillance of the Iraqi
airspace during the temporary period.
U.S. government airplanes and civilian airplanes contracted with
the U.S. Department of Defense are not subject to taxes or
related fees, including any fees related to flying in Iraqi
airspace, refueling in the air, landing and departing in Iraq.
Also, U.S. ships and civilian ships contracted with the U.S.
Department of Defense are not subject to taxes or related fees
during using Iraqi ports. Airplanes and ships are not subject to
any search, and all Iraqi requirements of registration are
U.S. forces pay money for any services or materials obtained or
received in Iraq.
Both sides exchange maps and other information on mines and
other obstacles in the Iraqi lands and waters that might
jeopardize either side’s movement in Iraq’s land and waters.
forces are permitted to sign contracts in accordance to U.S. law
to obtain materials and services in Iraq, including construction
services. U.S. forces can obtain such materials and services
from any source, and they must respect Iraq laws when signing
contracts, and they will choose Iraqi contractors when possible
as long as their bids have the best value. The U.S. forces will
inform the Iraqi authorities of the Iraqi importers and Iraqi
contractors names and the amount of relevant contracts.
Services and telecommunications
U.S. forces are permitted to produce and generate water and
electricity and other services for the installations and areas
agreed upon in coordination with the Iraqi authorities through
the joint committee.
The Iraqi government owns all frequencies. The Iraqi authorities
allocate special waves for the U.S. forces based on what both
sides decide through the joint committee (JMOCC). The U.S.
forces will give these waves back after it is done with using
U.S. forces are permitted to operate their own wired and
wireless telecommunications (according to the definition of
wired and wireless telecommunications in the Convention of the
International Telecommunication Union of 1992), including all
the special services needed to secure the full capacity of
telecommunications operations. The U.S. operates its systems in
accordance to the Convention of the International
Telecommunication Union whenever it is possible to implement
For the purposes of this agreement, all fees related to the U.S.
usage of telecommunications frequencies are waived, including
any administrative or other related fees.
U.S. forces will coordinate with the Iraqi authorities regarding
any telecommunications infrastructure projects outside the
installations and areas agreed upon.
The U.S. has exclusive legal jurisdiction over U.S. armed forces
members and civilian members inside and outside installations
and areas agreed upon.Iraqi Suggestion: the
Iraqi delegation has suggested the following:
The U.S. has the legal jurisdictions over the U.S. armed forces
members and civilian members inside installations and areas
agreed upon at all times, and outside the installations and
areas agreed upon while conducting missions except for
intentional crimes and major mistakes.
U.S. suggestion: The U.S. delegation suggested the
a temporary regulation, and until the withdrawal of the U.S.
combat forces is complete as indicated in paragraph 1 of article
26, until the combat missions are over the U.S. has the
exclusive legal jurisdiction over U.S. armed forces members and
civilian members inside and outside installations and areas
The U.S. will give its full attention to any complaint submitted
by Iraq over intentional crimes and major mistakes that break
Iraqi laws committed by U.S. armed forces members and civilian
members. All complaints submitted by the Iraqi legal authorities
will be dealt with by the joint committee and settled by mutual
agreement of both sides.
Iraqi Suggestion: the Iraqi delegation has
suggested the following:
Iraq has legal jurisdiction over U.S. armed forces members and
civilian members who commit intentional crimes or major mistakes
that break the Iraqi laws. The related joint committee
concerning jurisdictions takes the appropriate action to solve
disputes based on mutual agreement.
Iraq has legal jurisdiction over U.S. contractors and their
employees when they break Iraqi laws.
U.S. forces will inform the Iraqi authorities of any criminal
investigations that relate to members of the U.S. armed forces
or civilian members involved in a crime against a victim that
usually lives in Iraq. Both sides put the appropriate
regulations to contact people related to incidents, provide
details of the case and court dates, and help persons involved
contact lawyers in accordance to article 21 of this agreement.
The U.S. will work on holding the court in Iraq when that is
appropriate and when both sides agree on it. In case the court
was based in the U.S., the United States will make its best
effort to facilitate bringing victims into the court.
Both sides agree to help each other in incidents’ investigations
and collecting evidences to support a fair judgment.
All members of U.S. armed forces or civilian members who get
arrested by the Iraqi authorities must be surrendered
immediately to the U.S. forces authorities.
Iraqi Suggestion: the Iraqi delegation has
suggested the following:
All members of U.S. armed forces or civilian members who get
arrested by the Iraqi authorities must be surrendered to the
U.S. forces authorities within 24 hours.
Baring Guns and wearing uniforms
armed forces members and civilian members are authorized to
carry U.S. government guns during their presence in Iraq based
on the authorities and orders given to them. U.S. armed forces
members are also permitted to wear their official uniforms
during duty in Iraq.
Entering and Exiting
For the purposes of the agreement, U.S. armed forces members and
civilian members can enter and exit Iraq from official borders
using U.S.-issued ID cards. The joint committee puts a mechanism
for the Iraqi verification process.
For purposes of verification the U.S. forces will submit to the
Iraqi authorities a list with the names of U.S. armed forces
members and civilian members entering and exiting Iraq or
through the Installations and areas agreed upon.
The Iraqi entering and exiting laws can be implemented on
others, but not on the U.S. armed forces members and civilian
Importing and Exporting
For the purposes of the agreement, including training and
services, the U.S. forces and their contractors are permitted to
import into Iraq and export from Iraq and re-export from Iraq
and transport and use any equipments, supplements, materials,
technology, training, or services except for those materials
banned in Iraq at the time of signing this agreement. These
materials are not subject to search or to license requirement or
any other limitations. Exporting Iraqi goods by the U.S. forces
is not subject to search or any other limitations either except
the license discussed later in this agreement. The joint
committee will coordinate with the Iraqi ministry of trade to
facilitate getting the required export license in accordance to
the Iraqi laws related to exporting goods by U.S. forces.
U.S. forces members and civilian members are permitted to
import, re-export, and use their personal equipment and
materials for consumption or personal use. Such materials are
not subject to any licenses, limitations, taxes and customs or
other fees defined in paragraph 10 of article 2, except for
required or obtained services. The amount of imports must be
reasonable and for personal use. The U.S. forces authorities
will put the needed regulations to insure no materials or
articles of cultural or historical value are exported.
Materials mentioned in paragraph 2 will be searched in a speedy
fashion in a specific location agreed upon according to the
the tax exempt materials in accordance to this agreement were to
be sold in Iraq to individuals or entities not included in tax
exemption, taxes and customs as defined in paragraph 10 of
article 2 are to be paid by the buyer.
is not permissible to import any of the materials mentioned in
this article for commercial reasons.
Services and goods obtained by U.S. forces in Iraq for official
use are not subject to taxes and fees as defined in paragraph 10
of article 2.
U.S. forces members and civilian members are not subject to any
taxes or fees in Iraq except for services obtained or requested
Licenses and Permits
Iraq agrees to accept valid U.S.-issued drivers’ licenses held
by U.S. forces members, civilian members and U.S. contractors
without subjecting them to any tests or operation fees for
vehicles, ships, and airplanes owned by the U.S. forces in Iraq.
Iraq agrees to accept valid U.S.-issued drivers’ licenses held
by U.S. forces members, civilian members and U.S. contractors to
operate their personal cars in Iraq without subjecting them to
any tests or fees.
Official and Military Vehicles
the purposes of this article:
Officials vehicles are commercial vehicles that might be
modified for security reasons, and they will carry Iraqi license
plates to be agreed upon by both sides. Iraqi authorities will
issue, based on a request by the U.S. forces authorities,
license plates for U.S. forces official cars without fees, and
U.S. forces will reimburse the Iraqi authorities for the cost of
Iraq agrees to accept the validity of U.S.-issued licenses and
registrations for the U.S. forces official vehicles.
All U.S. military vehicles are exempt from registration and
licenses requirements. These vehicles will be identified with
distinguishable numbers and signs.
U.S. forces, or others acting on its behalf, are permitted to
create and manage activities and entities inside the
installations and areas agreed upon. This includes providing
services to U.S. forces members, civilian members, and their
contractors. These activities and entities might include
military post offices, financial services, stores selling food,
medicine, goods and other services, and it includes other areas
providing entertainment and telecommunications. All of the
mentioned services do not require a permit.
Radio, media, and entertainment activities that reache beyond
the installations and areas agreed upon must comply with Iraqi
Support services are for the exclusive use of the U.S. forces
members, civilian members, their contractors, and other entities
to be agreed upon. U.S. forces will take the required measures
to ensure none of the mentioned support services are misused,
and to insure services and goods will not be re-sold to
unauthorized individuals. The U.S. forces will limit radio and
TV broadcasting to authorized receivers.
Entities and facilities offering services indicated this is
article enjoy the same tax exemptions offered to the U.S.
forces, including those exemptions mentioned in articles 15 and
16 of this agreement. These entities and facilities offering
services are to be operated in accordance to U.S. regulations,
and will not be obligated to collect or pay any taxes or fees on
Outgoing mail, sent through military postal services, is
verified by the U.S. authorities and is exempt from being
searched, examined, or confiscated by the Iraqi authorities.
Currency and Foreign exchange
U.S. forces are permitted to use any amount of U.S. currency or
bonds for the purposes of this agreement. Using Iraqi currency
in U.S. military banks must be in compliance with Iraqi laws.
U.S. forces are permitted to distribute or exchange any amount
of currency to the U.S. forces members, civilians’ members, and
their contractors for purposes of travelling, including
U.S. forces will not take Iraqi currency out of Iraq, and will
take all required measures to insure none of the U.S. forces
members, civilian members, or their contractors take Iraqi
currency out of Iraq.
Article Twenty One
Except for contract related claims, both sides waive their
rights to request compensation because of any harm, loss, or
destruction of property, or request compensation for injury or
death of forces members or civilian members from both sides
occurring during their official duties.
forces authorities will pay fair and reasonable compensation to
settle third party claims arising due to a member of the armed
forces or civilian members during their official duties, or due
to non-combat accidents caused by U.S. armed forces. The U.S.
forces’ authorities may settle claims caused by non-official
duties actions. Claims must be dealt with urgently by the U.S.
forces’ authorities in accordance to U.S. laws and regulations.
When settling claims, the U.S. forces authorities will take in
consideration any investigation reports, opinions regarding
responsibility, or opinions regarding amount of damages issued
by the Iraqi authorities.
joint committee will study issues related to claims resulting
from paragraph 1 and 2 of this article and find resolutions in
accordance to U.S. and Iraqi laws.
Article Twenty Two
All detention operations in this agreement must be conducted in
accordance to the Iraqi law, constitution, sovereignty and
national interest as decided by the Iraqi government in
accordance to the international law.
individuals detained by U.S. forces must be prepared to be
handed over to the Iraqi authorities within 24 hours.
detention operations can take place without a warrant issued by
the specialized Iraqi authorities in accordance to the Iraqi
When Iraqi authorities conduct detention operations, they may
ask for the help of the U.S. forces.
Detainees are kept in locations prepared by the Iraqi
authorities and under its exclusive supervision and control.
U.S. forces are not permitted to search houses and other
properties without a judicial warrant, unless there was an
active combat operation, and in coordinating with the
specialized Iraqi authorities.
Article Twenty three
Extending this agreement to
Iraq may reach an agreement with any other country participating
in the Multi-National forces to ask for their help in achieving
security and stability in Iraq.
Iraq is permitted to reach an agreement that includes any of the
articles mentioned in this agreement with any country or
international organization to ask for help in achieving security
and stability in Iraq.
Article twenty four
following entities are responsible of the implementation of this
agreement and the settlement of any disputes over its
interpretation and application:
joint committee of ministers from both sides that deal with the
basic issues needed to interpret the implementation of this
joint committee to coordinate military operations. This
committee will be formed by the joint committee of ministers and
includes representatives from both sides. The joint committee to
coordinate military operations will be jointly led by both
joint committee formed by both sides that includes
representatives chosen by both sides. This committee deals with
all issues related to this agreement that do not fall under the
mandate of the joint committee to coordinate military
operations; this committee will jointly led by both sides.
Sub-committees in all different areas created by the joint
committee. Subcommittees will discuss issues related to
interpretation and implementation of this agreement each in
accordance to its expertise.
Article twenty five
sides enter into implementation arrangements to execute this
Article Twenty Six
Targeted times to handover
complete security responsibilities to the Iraqi security forces,
and withdrawal of U.S. forces from Iraq
Iraqi Suggestion: the Iraqi delegation has
suggested the following title to this article:
Transferring security responsibilities to Iraqi authorities, and
the withdrawal of the U.S. forces from Iraq
U.S. Suggestion: the U.S. delegation has suggested combining
paragraphs 1 and 2 as follows:
Both sides have agreed on the following time targets to handover
complete security responsibilities to the Iraqi security forces
and the withdrawal of the U.S. forces from Iraq:
U.S. combat troops will withdraw from Iraq completely at the
latest on (…)
U.S. forces will withdraw from all cities, towns, and villages
at latest by June 30, 2009 unless the Iraqi authorities request
Note: the head of the U.S. delegation offered to accept the new
title only if their combined paragraph is accepted, and he
linked the two as one deal
All U.S. combat troops regroup in installations and areas agreed
upon after the date mentioned in paragraph 2 of this article.
After the withdrawal of all combat troops as mentioned in
paragraph 1 of this article, the rest of these forces will stay
based on a request from the Iraqi government in accordance to
this agreement. The joint committee for operations and
coordination will determine the tasks and level of the troops
that will focus on training and supporting Iraqi security
Both sides review the progress towards achieving dates mentioned
in this article and the conditions that might lead to one side
asking the other to extend or reduce the time periods mentioned
in paragraph 1 and paragraph 2 of this article. Any extension or
reduction of the time period is subject to both side's approval.
U.S. forces may withdraw from Iraq before the dates indicated in
this article if either of the two sides should so request. Both
sides recognize the Iraqi government's sovereign right to
request a withdrawal of U.S. forces at anytime.
Article Twenty Seven
This agreement is valid for (…) years unless it is terminated
earlier based on a request from either sides or extended with
the approval of both sides.
This agreement can be modified with the written approval of both
sides and in accordance to constitutional procedures in both
Cancellation of this agreement requires a written notice
provided on year in advance.
This agreement goes into effect on the day that diplomatic memos
confirming all constitutional procedures have been met in both
countries are exchanged.
These memos will be exchanged before the expiration of UN
resolution number 1790 at latest by December 31st,
Translated from the original Arabic by Raed Jarrar - Visit
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